Reference list at end of essay


Methods of citation

Lyon, E. Eggins ed.

Cite at the End

London: The Falmer Press, pp. Pask, G. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp. Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.

Library Guides

The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, but for specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your tutor, or look at the more detailed reference books listed in the Further reading section of this guide.

The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources. Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet. When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information. A format for referencing web pages is given below. Full references to unpublished oral presentations, such as lectures, usually include the speaker's name, the date of the lecture, the name of the lecture or of the lecture series, and the location:.

Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight. If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used.

There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks. The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency. Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes notes at the foot of the page or endnotes notes at the end of the work to reference their writing. Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same.

Footnote or endnote markers , usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscript , are placed at the appropriate point in the text. This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above. Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate. Full details of the reference are then given at the bottom of the relevant page or, if endnotes are preferred, in numerical order at the end of the writing.

Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system. Moore, K. Kelsall, R. The reference to 'p.

If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors. Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.

What is referencing?

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.


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Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon. Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.

Do not include personal communication in the reference list.


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  • If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited.

    If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. Research Help: Search this Guide Search. Use the navigation on the left to learn more. Beins Call Number: BF B Beins; Bernard C. This article was co-authored by Alexander Peterman. Alexander Peterman is a Private Tutor in Florida.

    Categories: Essays. Learn why people trust wikiHow. There are 10 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. Method 1.

    How to correctly structure your dissertation reference list | Oxbridge Essays

    Cite while you write. MLA makes use of short in-text citations inside parentheses, compiling them in an alphabetical Works Cited list at the end of the document.


    • APA format for end references?
    • Essay Basics: Format a References Page in APA Style | Owlcation.
    • Before you write.
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    • While you're composing an essay, it's important to include where you get certain information in order to avoid plagiarism passing another's knowledge as your own. You will need a citation directly after every sentence or group of sentences if you're citing the same source in multiple consecutive sentences containing information you didn't think of yourself.

      Cite as You Write

      These include: paraphrases, facts, statistics, quotes, and examples. An in-text citation using MLA will simply have the author last name or title if no author followed by the page number. No comma between author and page number. For example: Richards Richards is the author last name, and is the page number. If you have an author name or title, if no author but no page number, simply use author last name or title. Gather information. When you do research using MLA style of citation, you need to gather specific pieces of information for each citation.

      The easiest way to keep track of MLA citations while doing research is to copy and paste copyright information into a word processing document as you go, or to write it down in a notebook. Things to include for any source are author s , date published, publisher, page number, volume and issue number, website, date accessed, anything that appears on the copyright page or indicates how to find it again.

      Organize the sources.

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