It is viewed by some researchers as the ultimate objective of the reading process, since he who does not comprehend what he reads is considered as if he has not read". Reading comprehension must be the basic consideration of all readers. The ability of the readers to understand what they are reading; interpret ideas and inject meaning to printed words is comprehension.
Thus, reading alone is not enough; there must be comprehension so that learners may not only focus on the text but also on the interpretation of its deeper meanings. The importance of reading comprehension is emphasized in the education community; however, everyone may not realize how important reading actually is.
Although strong reading skills can help students do well in language arts and reading class, that is only the beginning. Students have to use reading skills in every single subject they ever study and in almost every aspect of life.
Teaching Metacognitive Reading Strategies to Second Language Learners in a Classroom Setting
It is so sad to note that students who struggle with reading comprehension may fall so far behind in school that they have limited opportunities as an adult. Students are exposed nowadays to different ideas, people and products; and viewpoints increase as rapidly as the changes in the society. Just about everyone in the Philippines knows how to read.
As a nation, almost everybody enjoys a high rate of literacy. Unfortunately however, not every Filipino is a good reader who can derive meaning from a written material and go on to analyze and apply that meaning. Thus, readers who can only read facts and nothing more can never be called good readers.
Using Miscue Analysis to Diagnose Reading Difficulties
A student, who can read comprehensively, can also be successful in all his or her lessons. It is known that in the Philippines, the university and high school entrance examinations have mostly questions based on testing learners' ability whether they can read comprehensively and can come up with new interpretations by making analysis and synthesis on the given data in the many research tasks.
Teachers therefore have a very important role to play in helping their students get most out of reading and become good readers. They need to introduce to them extensive reading and provide them essential guidance as they read comprehensively. While teaching reading comprehension, teachers must always keep in mind that the goal is to let the students understand what the author meant.
Moreover, teachers must help students do well in their subject and pass the required examination. It is in the above premise that the researcher is encouraged to determine the reading comprehension ability of the Grade VI pupils of Kinangay Sur Elementary School during the school year — However, the importance of reading skill nevertheless is minimized with this change in global perspective.
Rather, it has increased the importance to develop reading skill manifold. Nobody denies the importance of a properly learnt reading skill for learning of other language skill. It is thought a difficult process because the transmission of an idea through several imperfect media is involved. For example, the author must have a clear idea in his mind, and then reduce this idea to written language; this will be printed; and finally the reader looks at the printed word and forms an idea.
Reading comprehension enables the reader to interact with the text in a meaningful way. For many, there are doors to lifetime of reading recreation and enjoyment. Moreover, the experiential and cultural background of the ESL reader has a strong effect onreading comprehension and ESL learners, early in their development of English, can write English and can do so for various purposes.
There are a lot of widespread studies on reading; the National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP study in confirmed that there is a tight correlation between reading fluency and reading comprehension among fourth graders. In conclusion, it emphasized that reading fluency is a neglected reading skill in many American classrooms, affecting many students' reading comprehension.
Moreover, the low level of reading comprehension among American students reveals issues with underlying reading proficiency. Thus, for many students, successful reading comprehension means a return to the basic mental tools that create a firm cognitive foundation. The results showed a marked improvement in the performance of the experimental subjects, especially in terms of their writing skills. Du Boulay cited in Khateeb, assures that weakness in the reading ability constitutes one of the biggest problems that encounter students at all educational levels.
Thus,teaching reading is viewed as a teaching objective at the different educational stages; and the key to success in other subjects of study. A number of studies were cited in the article "Importance of Reading Comprehension in Second Language Learning" and revealed significant findings. They examined whether one month of extensive reading enhanced knowledge of these target words' spelling, meaning, and grammatical characteristics. Spelling was strongly enhanced, even from a small number of exposures.
Meaning and grammatical knowledge were also enhanced, but not to the same extent. Overall, the study indicated that much vocabulary acquisition is possible from extensive reading than previous studies have suggested. Second, Sewjee writes that may be reading has more important part to play than speaking and listening for a learner as without reading he cannot achieve his goals. While reading a book he can travel to all around the world while sitting in his place and can make contact with all kinds of people and comes across all sorts of dialects.
He learns to distinguish between good and bad and acquires all kinds of information, which helps to be a better speaker and a better writer. They could expand their vocabulary, knowledge and understanding of words they knew before. Thus, reading can help students write better, as well as improve their listening and speaking ability. They may develop positive attitudes toward reading in English and increased motivation to study.
Indeed, reading comprehension is very vital for the learning process as it provides students with the ability to understand, criticize and interact with the text; it expands students' trends and experience ; it enhances their commonsense level; it deepens their thinking and assists them to orientate and monitor themselves while reading; it helps students comprehend a text self dependently and the teachers develop clear and successive instructional procedures and it breaks the students' inaction by encouraging them to get involved in the educational process more actively and effectively.
Hence utilizing strategies that improve reading comprehension level within the students is very necessary. Teaching thinking skills at all levels of education is needed. Teachers then should provide students the atmosphere which gives them opportunities to have deep and divergent thinking with real life issues.
In this study as shown in Figure 1, there are four levels of reading comprehension ability involved in this study. These are the literal, interpretative, evaluative and creative levels. The lesson model is the output variable.
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Acquiring reading skills is dependent upon the mastery of a wide variety of reading skills such as the following levels or dimensions of comprehension — literal, interpretative, evaluative and creative. Literal Level produces knowledge of what the author said. The students decode words, determine what each word means in a given context and recognize that there is some relationship among words which represent what the author has said. At this level, the learners are expected to identify the basic information and follow simple instructions; they form ideas or meanings directly stated in the selection.
These ideas are elicited by questions beginning with what, when, where, who, etc. Interpretative level or reading between the lines is applied to what the author said in order to derive, infer, and imply meaning from a statement. Students look into relationships among statements within the material they have read. The learners are tasked to discern the implications of the episodes by inference and to conform ideas or meanings indirectly or implicitly stated in the selection.
How and Why questions are often elicited that call for some reasoning, implications, conclusions, assumptions and interpretation provided from reading the selection. Critical or evaluative level refers to reading beyond the lines. The students give reaction, judgment and evaluation of what is written. This involves how they can distinguish the literal meaning of words from suggestions or intentions expressed in the selection.
It ultimately deals with the evaluation of what is read. It lets the reader comprehend by making him analyze, compare and contrast, etc. Application or creative level is the highest level of comprehension, for it requires the exercise and application of creative talent and some practical or theoretical exercise. It also allows the reader to create new ideas or new ways of expression with the use of whatever understanding he got of the text. Thus, it challenges the learner to be like an inventor in using what he got from the text to create new material as a proof of his excellent comprehension of the text.
Figure 1 below done in schematic diagram depicts the conceptual framework of the study. This study aimed to determine the levels of the reading comprehension ability of the 21 Grade VI pupils officially enrolled during the school year — at Kinangay Sur Elementary School, Clarin, Misamis Occidental.
This study is deemed beneficial to the following:. The study output was a lesson model derived from the findings.
This chapter deals with the research methodology of the study which includes the research method used, the respondents of the study, sampling technique, the instruments used, scoring procedure, data collection technique and statistical treatment used in this study. These pupils are composed of 9 boys and 12 girls. It is located south of the second congressional district of the Province of Misamis Occidental and is 2. With the collaborative effort of the DepEd and the barangay officials, Kinangay Sur Elementary School was founded in This elementary school is an adopted school of the Languages department for its community outreach program.
Once the learner of written English gets the basic idea that letters represent the small sound units within spoken and heard words, called phonemes, the system has many advantages: a much more limited set of graphemic symbols is needed than in either syllabic like Japanese or morphosyllabic like Chinese systems; strategies.
What is morphology? The study of the structure and form of words in language or a language, including inflection, derivation, and the formation of compounds. What is orthography? A method of representing spoken language by letters and diacritics, spelling. What is phonology?
The study of speech structure in language or a particular language that includes both the patterns of basic speech units phonemes and the tacit rules of pronunciation. What is a syllable? A unit of spoken language that can be spoken. In English, a syllable can consist of a vowel sound alone or a vowel sound with one or more consonant sounds preceding and following.
Alphabetic systems of writing vary in the degree to which they are designed to represent the surface sounds of words. Some languages, such as Spanish, spell all words as they sound, even though this can cause two closely related words to be spelled very differently. Writing systems that compromise phonological representations in order to reflect morphological information are referred to as deep orthographies. In English, rather than preserving one-letter-to-one-sound correspondences, we preserve the spelling, even if that means a particular letter spells several different sounds.
For example, the last letter pronounced "k" in the written word "electric" represents quite different sounds in the words "electricity" and ''electrician," indicating the morphological relation among the words but making the sound-symbol relationships more difficult to fathom. The deep orthography of English is further complicated by the retention of many historical spellings, despite changes in pronunciation that render the spellings opaque.
The "gh" in "night" and "neighborhood" represents a consonant that has long since disappeared from spoken English. The "ph" in "morphology" and "philosophy" is useful in signaling the Greek etymology of those words but represents a complication of the pattern of sound-symbol correspondences that has been abandoned in Spanish, German, and many other languages that also retain Greek-origin vocabulary items.
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