Thesis on self help groups

Self reflective essay for group project

The findings of this study revealed that, there is high level of participation and empowerment among the members of self-help groups in Kano City, Nigeria. Therefore, about The analysis shows that, all the independent variables were significantly contributed to self-elp group sustainability. This study is in line with the previous literature by indicating that, leadership effort has the highest significant contribution to the sustainability of the self-help groups. The researcher recommended that, communities that need to develop their capacities through grassroots organizations should adopt the concept of self-help group formation.

Simple Search:. More information and software credits. Tel: I Fax: I Email: lib upm. Microcredit is extension of small loans to the poor to enable them to take up income generating activities. These loans are based on the savings of the poor and are beneficial not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. These days, the SHG Movement is increasingly accepted as an innovation in the field of microcredit in many developing countries including India to help the poor. Since women comprise nearly half of the Indian population and in reality, imposed of intra-household and social discrimination, Indian Government has laid down macroeconomic policies and poverty eradication programmes to address the needs and problems of such women.

The formation of SHGs for women around thrift and credit has emerged as one of the most effective methods for poverty reduction and women empowerment. SHGs comprise very poor people who do not have access to formal financial institutions. They act as the forum for the members to provide space and support to each other. It also enables the members to learn to cooperate and work in a Group environment. The SHGs provide savings mechanism and a cost effective delivery mechanism for small credit to its members. They pool their resources, to become financially stable, taking loans from the money collected by that Group and by making everybody in that Group self-employed.

The Group members use collective wisdom and peer pressure to ensure proper end-use of credit and timely repayment.


This system eliminates the need for collateral and is closely related to that, of solidarity lending, widely used by microfinance institutions. To make the bookkeeping simple, flat interest rates are used for most loan calculations. The women Self-Help Groups play an important role in the entrepreneurship development. The nationwide development programmes are focusing on the formation of women self-help groups and through these groups the families can march towards the overall development of the quality of life of women.

The development of the women entrepreneurial skills gained its importance in India after the declaration of the International decade for women by the United Nations Organization, i. The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually started changing with the growth sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society.

The study reported a significant relationship between the loan amount and improvements in awareness and capacity building and the conclusion is that, the higher the loan amount, the higher the capacity building of rural women? As Self-Help Groups have become the focal point of poverty reduction efforts and occupies pride of place in national programmes and is deemed to be a potential tool for the social integration and socio-economic betterment of the women a critical examination of the profile, organizational structure, mechanism of implementation and functionality, business strategies adopted, funds flow and its utilization, are analysed to find out whether those activities achieve poverty upliftment and empowerment.

Self Help Groups

In the course of economic development, the empowerment approach focuses on mobilizing the self-help efforts of the women, rather than providing them with economical welfare. SHG entrepreneur is one that organizes, manages, and assumes the risk of a business enterprise jointly as an affinity group by mobilizing their savings and microcredit. To breakthrough, Self-Help Group is a registered or unregistered group of micro entrepreneurs having homogenous social and economic backgrounds; voluntarily coming together to save regular small sums of money, mutually agreeing to contribute to a common fund and to meet their emergency needs on the basis of mutual help.

The group members use collective wisdom and peer pressure to ensure proper end-use of credit and timely repayment. This system eliminates the need for collateral and is closely related to that of solidarity lending, widely used by microfinance institutions. The concept of SHGs has its origin in the co-operative philosophy and the co-operators by and large, including the National Federations in the credit sector, could not think of any better SHG than a primary co-operative credit society itself.

As SHGs are small and economically homogeneous affinity groups of the poor, they are voluntarily coming together for achieving the following: 1 to save small amount of money regularly, 2 to mutually agree to contribute to a common fund, 3 to meet their emergency needs, to have collective decision-making, 4 to solve conflicts through collective leadership and mutual discussion and 5 to provide collateral-free loans with terms decided by the group at the market-driven rates.

Self Help Groups — The Share Trust

Funds may be used for loans and common investment in business activities leading to economic empowerment, vii The savings of members is used for giving loans to members for purposes including consumption at the rate of interest decided by the group usually higher than the bank charges. India is a country with diverse socio-economic conditions. This diversity is prominent in every aspect of life including financial services. Households with low income often lack access to banking services. These families find it more difficult to save.

On the other extreme there are people enjoying all kinds of services. Lack of financial services has an impact on the economic condition of the people and is a major cause for poverty. Understanding the vital need to increase the income level of the population who are not employed and to bring balance in the economy, the Government felt that SHG concept may be one of the methods that it can implement to minimize the problem of unemployment which is also expected to increase the income level of the population below the poverty line and in turn generating a positive impact on the empowerment of women.

Self-Help Movement programmes in the eye of Indian Government serve as the last-mile bridge to the low-income population excluded from the traditional financial services system to alleviate poverty. In India, women have been the vulnerable section of society and constitute a sizeable segment of the poverty-struck population. Women face gender-specific barriers to access education, health, employment and so forth.

The problem is more acute for women in countries like India, despite the fact that women's labor makes a critical contribution to the economy. This is due to the low social status and lack of access to key resources. Evidence shows that groups of women are better customers than men, the better managers of resources.

If loans are routed through women, benefits of loans will spread wider among the household. Since women's empowerment is the key to socio-economic development of the community, bringing women into the mainstream of national development has been a major concern of government. Microfinance deals with women below the poverty line. Microloans are available solely and entirely to this target group of women as poor women generally lack education and they also lack access to other resources which would help them towards economical upgradation and social mobility through poverty alleviation.

Microfinance through Self-Help Groups is propagated as an alternative system of credit delivery for the poorest of the poor groups.

Self Help Groups (SHG) and NABARD's SHG Bank Linkage

The role of Self-Help Groups in the upliftment of families below poverty line is much appreciable in various other parts of India. The families in financial difficulties find SHGs as a boon in ameliorating their financial problems.

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Similarly, empowerment closely linked to economic independence is attained by financial stability reaped through SHGs group participation which is also victimized in various other parts of India. Many studies have shown that when women are supported financially and empowered, the society as a whole enjoys the benefits and communities become more resilient. The National Policy for Empowerment of Women states that the constitution not only grants equity to women, but also empowers the state to accept measures of positive discrimination in favour of women.

The economy of Coimbatore district is noted for its inequalities in income distribution, unemployment according to per capita GDP. Despite the prevalence of positive indicators like adequate literacy, low infant mortality, wide employment opportunities and raised standard of living, the condition of women has not improved as expected.

New microfinance approaches through Self-Help Movement programmes emerged in India over the past decade has been implemented in the district involving the provision of thrift, credit and other financial services and products, with the aim to raise income levels and to improve living standards. In this perception, this is attempted to investigate whether the economic activities progressed through Self-Help Movement is feasible to improve the economic portfolio of women Self-Help Groups and members.

The methodology of the research indicates the general pattern of organizing the procedure for gathering valid and reliable data for the purpose of investigation. Research design is the framework that has been created to seek answers to research questions and provides a direction to the investigation being conducted in the most efficient manner.

The design of the present study is descriptive, analytical and conclusive. The variables used in the study for analyzing the objectives are identified based on the review, discussions with the officials of the NABARD and the NGOs and a preliminary interview with the selected Self-Help Groups. Based on the variables identified it is understood that it requires the collection of data from both the Self-Help Groups and Members engaged in Self-Help Group business activities.

The interview schedule so drafted is circulated among some research experts, research scholars and office bearers of SHGs for a critical review with regard to the format, sequence, wording and the likes. The key aspect of the present research is to identify the preliminary respondents through an interview with a few selected leaders and members.

Further, a study has been conducted and the data have been collected from 50 SHG leaders and SHG members and the results of the survey have necessitated certain changes for the final structuring of the interview schedule meant for the SHG leaders Nos. After modification of necessary information to the interview schedule, the same members are again met and their responses are collected again for validating the interview schedule and are included in the samples and analysed.

The analysis of the results revealed that the objectives of the study could be measured clearly. Two different interview schedules have been used to collect the information from the respondents. The first schedule has been used to draw information from the Group leaders Animators of the Groups and the second schedule has been used to extract information from the Self-Help Group members. The first part of both the instrument pertains to demographic profile and the remaining parts are classified based on objectives to be studied.

Excel spreadsheet is used for recording and calculating the samples. Also Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS , a computer software package of statistical tools for deploying different statistical tools, is used. Sampling design refers to the process of selecting samples from a population.

For the purpose of the study, stratified sampling method has been adopted for the selection of area and samples. Stratified samples are samples within samples where each stratum is fairly homogenous.

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  • With stratified sampling, the researcher divides the population into separate, likely, called strata. Then, a purposive selection based on the research synthesis factor is drawn.

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