The most important hagiographies of Varkari Bhakti saints was written by Mahipati in the 18th Century. He is most known for translating the Mahabharata and the Ramayana in Marathi but only a part of the Mahabharata translation is available and the entire Ramayana translation is lost. Shridhar Kulkarni came from the Pandharpur area and his works are said to have superseded the Sanskrit epics to a certain extent. This period also saw the development of Powada ballads sung in honor of warriors , and Lavani romantic songs presented with dance and instruments like tabla.
The British colonial period starting in early s saw standardisation of Marathi grammar through the efforts of the Christian missionary William Carey. Carey's dictionary had fewer entries and Marathi words were in Devanagari. Translations of the Bible were first books to be printed in Marathi. These translations by William Carey, the American Marathi mission and the Scottish missionaries led to the development of a peculiar pidginized Marathi called the "Missionary Marathi in early s  The most comprehensive Marathi-English dictionary was compiled by Captain James Thomas Molesworth and Major Thomas Candy in The book is still in print nearly two centuries after its publication.
They used Brahmins of Pune for this task and adopted the Sanskrit dominated dialect spoken by the elite in the city as the standard dialect for Marathi. First Marathi periodical Dirghadarshan was started in The Marathi language flourished, as Marathi drama gained popularity.
Musicals known as Sangeet Natak also evolved [ citation needed ]. Keshavasut , the father of modern Marathi poetry published his first poem in The lateth century in Maharashtra saw the rise of essayist Vishnushastri Chiplunkar with his periodical, Nibandhmala that had essays that criticized social reformers like Phule and Gopal Hari Deshmukh.
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He also founded the popular Marathi periodical of that era called Kesari in Notable grammarians of this period were Tarkhadkar , A. Kher, Moro Keshav Damle, and R. Joshi . The first half of the 20th century was marked by new enthusiasm in literary pursuits, and socio-political activism helped achieve major milestones in Marathi literature , drama, music and film. Modern Marathi prose flourished: for example, N. After Indian independence , Marathi was accorded the status of a scheduled language on the national level. In , the then Bombay state was reorganized which brought most Marathi and Gujarati speaking areas under one state.
Further re-organization of the Bombay state on 1 May , created the Marathi speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati speaking Gujarat state respectively. With state and cultural protection, Marathi made great strides by the s. Both events are very popular among Marathi speakers. Notable works in Marathi in the latter half of 20th century include Khandekar's Yayati , which won him the Jnanpith Award. Also Vijay Tendulkar 's plays in Marathi have earned him a reputation beyond Maharashtra.
In the term "Dalit literature" was used for the first time, when the first conference of Maharashtra Dalit Sahitya Sangha Maharashtra Dalit Literature Society was held at Mumbai , a movement inspired by 19th century social reformer, Jyotiba Phule and eminent dalit leader, Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar. In recent decades there has been a trend among Marathi speaking parents of all social classes in major urban areas of sending their children to English medium schools. There is some concern, though without foundation, that this may lead to the marginalization of the language.
Indic scholars distinguish 42 dialects of spoken Marathi. Dialects bordering other major language areas have many properties in common with those languages, further differentiating them from standard spoken Marathi. The bulk of the variation within these dialects is primarily lexical and phonological e.
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Although the number of dialects is considerable, the degree of intelligibility within these dialects is relatively high. Zadi Boli Sahitya Mandal and many literary figures are working for the conservation of this important and distinct dialect of Marathi. These dialects retain the 17th-century basic form of Marathi and have been considerably influenced by the Dravidian languages after the migration.
Such phonetic shifts are common in spoken Marathi and, as such, the spoken dialects vary from one region of Maharashtra to another. The phoneme inventory of Marathi is similar to that of many other Indo-Aryan languages. An IPA chart of all contrastive sounds in Marathi is provided below.
There are two more vowels in Marathi to denote the pronunciations of English words such as of a in act and a in all. Maharashtri Prakrit, the ancestor of modern Marathi, is a particularly interesting case.ninebandbeer.com/what-is-the-best-cell-tracking-software-oppo-rx17.php
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Maharashtri was often used for poetry and as such, diverged from proper Sanskrit grammar mainly to fit the language to the meter of different styles of poetry. The new grammar stuck, which led to the unique flexibility of vowels lengths — amongst other anomalies — in Marathi. Kadamba alphabet and its variants has been historically used to write Marathi in the form of inscriptions on stones and copper plates.
From the 13th century until the beginning of British rule in 19th century, Marathi was written in the Modi script for administrative purposes but in Devnagari for literature. Since it has been written in the Balbodh style of Devanagari. Except for Father Stephen's Krista Purana in the Latin script in the s, Marathi has mainly been printed in Devanagari because William Carey , the pioneer of printing in Indian languages, was only able to print in Devanagari.
He later tried printing in Modi but by that time, Balbodh Devanagari had been accepted for printing.
Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh     version of Devanagari script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial- vowel letters. It is written from left to right.
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The Devanagari alphabet used to write Marathi is slightly different from the Devanagari alphabets of Hindi and other languages: there are a couple of additional letters in the Marathi alphabet, and Western punctuation is used. As with a large part of India, a traditional duality existed in script usage between Devanagari by religiously educated people most notably Brahmins and Modi for common usage among administrators, businesspeople, and others.
As observed in , . Although in the Mahratta country the Devanagari character is well known to men of education, yet a character is current among the men of business which is much smaller, and varies considerably in form from the Nagari, though the number and power of the letters nearly correspond. Devanagari used to write Marathi is slightly different than that of Hindi or other languages. It uses additional vowels and consonants that are not found in other languages that also use Devanagari.
From the thirteenth century until , Marathi, especially for business use, was written in the Modi alphabet , a cursive script designed for minimising the lifting of pen from paper while writing. In Devanagari, consonant letters by default come with an inherent schwa. When two or more consecutive consonants are followed by a vowel then a jodakshar consonant cluster is formed. Some examples of consonant clusters are shown below:. Some examples are given below. Marathi grammar shares similarities with other modern Indo-Aryan languages.
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The first modern book exclusively concerning Marathi Grammar was printed in by William Carey. Marathi employs agglutinative , inflectional and analytical forms. The primary word order of Marathi is subject—object—verb  Marathi follows a split-ergative pattern of verb agreement and case marking : it is ergative in constructions with either perfective transitive verbs or with the obligative "should", "have to" and it is nominative elsewhere. Over a period of many centuries, the Marathi language and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects.
Marathi borrows a lot of its vocabulary from Sanskrit. Marathi has also shared directions, vocabulary, and grammar with languages such as Indian Dravidian languages ,  and foreign languages such as Persian ,  Arabic , English and a little from Portuguese.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar , the noted Hindutva ideologue, writer and poet, contributed to the Marathi language, by coining new Marathi equivalents for words from other languages, mostly English. Prior to these Marathi equivalents, words from other languages were used commonly which was unacceptable to Savarkar. He opined that intrusion of foreign words, polluted the Marathi language, while also rendering the original Marathi words, of the same meanings, obsolete. Spoken Marathi contains a high number of Sanskrit-derived tatsama words.
Examples of words borrowed from other Indian and foreign languages include:. A lot of English words are commonly used in conversation and are considered to be assimilated into the Marathi vocabulary. Marathi uses many morphological processes to join words together, forming compounds. Like many other languages, Marathi uses distinct names for the numbers 1 to 20 and each multiple of 10, and composite ones for those greater than A positive integer is read by breaking it up from the tens digit leftwards, into parts each containing two digits, the only exception being the hundreds place containing only one digit instead of two.
For example, 1,, is written as 12,34, and read as 12 lakh 34 Hazara 5 she Every two-digit number after 18 11 to 18 are predefined is read backward. Also, a two digit number that ends with a 9 is considered to be the next tens place minus one. Two digit numbers used before Hazara , etc.
Shrilipee, Shivaji, kothare 2,4,6, Kiran fonts KF-Kiran  and many more about 48 are clip fonts that were used prior to the introduction of Unicode standard for Devanagari script. Clip fonts are in vogue on PCs even today since most of the computers in use are working with English Keyboard. Even today a large number of printed publications of books, newspapers and magazines are prepared using these ASCII based fonts.
However, clip fonts cannot be used on internet since those did not have unicode compatibility. Earlier Marathi suffered from weak support by computer operating systems and Internet services, as have other Indian languages.
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But recently, with the introduction of language localization projects and new technologies, various software and Internet applications have been introduced. Various Marathi typing software is widely used and display interface packages are now available on Windows , Linux and macOS.
Many Marathi websites, including Marathi newspapers, have become popular especially with Maharashtrians outside India. This day is regulated by the State Government. It is celebrated on the Birthday of eminent Marathi Poet Vi. Shirwadkar , popularly known as Kusumagraj. Essay competitions and seminars are arranged in Schools and Colleges. Government officials are asked to conduct various events.
Many government and semi-government organizations exist which work for the regulation, promotion, and enrichment of the Marathi language.
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